Histological (pathomorphological) examination is the basic and most common method for examining tissues (biopsy or surgical material).
Histological examination is the only possible basis, and sometimes the starting point for the formulation of both tumor and non-tumor diseases.
Material for histological examination is obtained by biopsy during endoscopic examination methods (FGS, FGDS, Colonoscopy, etc.), punctures (biopsy of the liver, kidney, bone marrow, lymph nodes, etc.), surgical intervention with removal of tissue, organ or parts of it.
In routine practice, the material to be tested is immersed in a vial of 10% buffered formalin for a chemical process called "fixation". This is the most critical moment of material processing, on the correct implementation of which the quality of the final preparations depends. It should be emphasized that this stage is implemented in the medical institution where the biopsy was taken.
Then, already fixed tissues undergo a complex multi-stage process of histological processing (the so-called histoprocessing). Subsequently, the processed material is immersed in paraffin to form blocks. This stage is called "filling the material". Then, the resulting paraffin blocks containing fragments of the examined tissue are cut using special equipment - microtomes. With their help, thin sections of tissue are formed (the thickness of such a section is not more than 3-5 microns), which are transferred to a glass slide. Then the resulting slides with the sample are stained with special dyes - hematoxylin and eosin and covered with a cover slip for further examination using a light microscope by a pathologist.
At the Bureau, the stage of histoprocessing is implemented using the most modern equipment from leading manufacturers - ThermoTM, SacuraTM.
Material processing methods are automated, which allows you to standardize the methodology and obtain representative, reliable results.
From the above, it is obvious that it is necessary to obtain a high-quality thin section of tissue for further staining. The Bureau uses advanced microtomy technologies - microtomes with a slice transfer system. Such microtomes make it possible to make very thin sections - up to 1 micron thick of ideal quality (for example: traditionally used microtomes rarely allow making preparations thinner than 5 microns). On our website you can see examples of how preparations “change” when they are cut again on a modern microtome (link).
Staining - it is this stage that allows the morphologist to "see" pathological changes in the preparation. Histological dyes selectively stain various structural elements of tissues and cells. To exclude poor-quality staining, the bureau uses special devices that automatically stain with more than 25 types of histological stains according to the appropriate protocol.
The stage of coating under the coverslip in the office is also automated.
As a result of all the indicated stages, the bureau manages to obtain drugs of perfect quality that can be stored for many years.
The bureau employs specialists with a high level of training and qualifications, who have a long work experience in pathological anatomy. The stage of histological examination is carried out in the bureau by doctors of 3 pathoanatomical departments:
- pathoanatomical department No. 1, which is headed by a pathologist of the highest category Merkushev Yury Anatolyevich (link to personal page)
- pathoanatomical department No. 2, which is headed by a pathologist of the highest category Maksimova Tatyana Vladimirovna (link to personal page)
- pathoanatomical department No. 3, which is headed by a pathologist of the highest category Shishigina Svetlana Valerievna (link to personal page).
For questions about conducting a histological examination in the office, please call (391) 228-07-47 (Khorzhevsky Vladimir Alekseevich).